نقل قول یا reported speech

الگوی کلی نقل قول مستقیم به شکل زیر می باشد:

Reporting verb + Reported speech

Reporting Verb فعلی است که قبل از نقل قول استفاده می شود

Reported Speech شامل گفته های یک شخص است که ما نقل می کنیم

از نقل قول غیر مستقیم زمانی استفاده می‌کنیم که بخواهیم گفته‌ی شخصی را به شخص دیگری اطلاع دهیم.

•    اغلب اوقات برای بیا ن نقل قول از (said/ told (+person استفاده می‌کنیم.

•    پس از said/ told گذاشتن that اختیاری است.

•    ضمایر در نقل قول غیر مستقیم تغییر می‌کنند مثلاً I به he/ she تبدیل می‌شود:

” I’m tired “. She told me (that) she was tired.

زمان افعال به صورت زیر تغییر می‌کند:

  • Direct speech: I like ice cream.
  • Reported speech: She said (that) she liked ice cream.
Tense Direct Speech Reported Speech
present simple I like ice cream She said (that) she liked ice cream.
present continuous I am living in London She said (that) she was living in London.
past simple I bought a car She said (that) she had bought a car OR She said (that) she bought a car.
past continuous I was walking along the street She said (that) she had been walking along the street.
present perfect I haven’t seen Julie She said (that) she hadn’t seen Julie.
past perfect* I had taken English lessons before She said (that) she had taken English lessons before.
will I’ll see you later She said (that) she would see me later.
would* I would help, but..” She said (that) she would help but…
can I can speak perfect English She said (that) she could speak perfect English.
could* I could swim when I was four She said (that) she could swim when she was four.
shall I shall come later She said (that) she would come later.
should* I should call my mother She said (that) she should call her mother
might* I might be late She said (that) she might be late
must I must study at the weekend She said (that) she must study at the weekend OR She said she had to study at the weekend
Reported Speech Direct Speech

He said (that) he could help me.

(simple past)

“I can help you.”

(simple present)

She said (that) she was watching TV.

(past continuous)

“ I’m watching TV.”

(present continuous)

He told me (that) he would call me.

(would)

“I’ll call you.”

(will)

John told me (that) he had met a girl.

(past perfect)

“I met a girl.”

(simple past)

Sara said (that) she had broken her leg.

(past perfect)

“I’ve broken my leg.”

(present perfect)

تفاوت say و tell

این دو کلمه، کاربرد مشابهی دارند اما روش استفاده از آنها کمی با هم متفاوت است.

برای say از ساختار You said that something استفاده می‌کنیم. منظور از something، حرفی است که نقل می‌کنیم:

He said that he was tired.

وقتی از say استفاده می‌کنیم، غالباً تمرکز روی نقل قول است؛ نه روی مفعول جمله (یعنی مخاطب این گفته). اما اگر قرار باشد به کسی که مخاطب این گفته است، از حرف اضافه to استفاده می‌کنیم. بنابراین اگر در جمله بالا بگوییم he said me، یا در جمله زیر بگوییم say you، اشتباه است.

What did she say to you?

همچنین برای tell از ساختار You told someone something استفاده می‌کنیم. همانطور که می‌بینید، در اینجا اولاً مفعول و مخاطب این گفته را هم ‌می‌آوریم؛ دوماً از حرف اضافه to بغد از told استفاده نمی‌کنم.

He told me that he was tired.

بنابراین اگر در جمله بالا بگوییم he told that یا اگر در جمله زیر بگوییم tell to you، اشتباه است

مارس 30, 2021

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